Language Production Revision

sorts of things you should probably know

  • Have an awareness of some speech and language disorders (e.g., aphasia), and word finding difficulties in particular (anomia)
  • be able to give some examples of naturally occurring speech errors made by healthy adults
  • be able to compare and evaluate two theoretical accounts within the language production literature
  • demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the lexicalisation process in particular
  • be able to describe and evaluate some methodologies used to study language production in healthy adults
  • describe and evaluate recent work on semantic interference effects during picture naming and be able to relate such effects to relevant theoretical accounts


example exam questions

  1. With reference to recent empirical work, evaluate two different theoretical accounts of language production.  
  2. With reference to relevant theory, critically discuss some of the findings from recent studies of picture name retrieval.


multiple choice and quizzes

(may be of limited value)


questions you should mostly be able to answer

  1. What are the 3 picture naming experiment paradigms? 
  2. Define Broca’s and Wernicke’s aphasia and anomia p3
  3. What mental health conditions/impairments is anomia associated with? 
  4. What is lexicalisation and what are the basic steps?
  5. Define with examples: syntax, phonetics, lexicon, phoneme, morpheme p4 a
  6. Names 3 methods of study for language production 
  7. Why study speech errors and what sort of things were researchers looking for? 
  8. Name some typical types of speech errors p5 
  9. Bonus/optional: what sort of characteristics so we find in the errors? 
  10. What’s the key means of studying language production in subjects?
  11. Why use this method/what does it tap into/activate?
  12. How many stages in lexicalisation process and what are they? p6
  13. so what is Levelt’s lemma and what’s the Weaver++ model p7
  14. to help, what are the 2 lexical stages after semantic activation? p9 
  15. is it a discrete or cascading model?
  16. How does the picture word interference (PWI) paradigm work & what’s the result? p9
  17. why does that happen according to Levelt’s colleague Roelofs*? p9&10
  18. what’s the Luce ratio? p10
  19. how does Caramazza’s alternative response exclusion mechanism work?
  20. does the REM phenomena happen at pre or post lexical level?
  21. what’s the cyclic blocking paradigm (sem interf) and what was the result? p11
  22. is the effect at semantic level or phonological level? p12
  23. which theory is it consistent with – lexical competition or response exclusion?
  24. bonus question: how did Pisoni use tDCS relating to excitation, inhibition and exec mech and what was the result? p13 
  25. describe Howard’s continuous naming paradigm (sem interference) & result p14 
  26. To explain this, Howard said language production systems must have 3 properties, which are? 
  27. What are the 2 units in Howard’s connectionist account of cumulative semantic interference called? p15
  28. Describe Howard’s model p15&16 
  29. Is it a lexical competition or response exclusion model? p15
  30. Can you say what/where is the difference between Roelofs & Howard’s models? p16 
  31. What’s Oppenheim’s alternative account of cumulative semantic interference, which has no competitive selection mechanism? p17 
  32. Why is picture naming & semantic interference study important when looking at speech disorders? p18