sorts of things you should probably know about
Perceptual Grouping – Gestalt Psychology
Direct and Indirect Perception
example exam questions
- What is direct (ecological) and indirect (constructivist) perception? Critically evaluate the arguments in the debate between the two explanatory approaches for visual processing, including the evidence for a dual route model of perception.
- What is the most influential model of human face recognition? Evaluate its strengths with appropriate experimental evidence.
- Why is there a debate on whether or not faces are special? Critically evaluate the evidence that has been used to argue for or against the special nature of faces in terms of visual processing.
- Why is there a debate on whether or not faces are processed separately by the cognitive system? Critically evaluate the evidence that has been used to argue for or against the special nature of faces in terms of visual processing.
- Critically evaluate the evidence that has been used to argue for or against the special nature of faces in terms of visual processing.
- Is visual perception influenced by previous knowledge? Critically evaluate the evidence
How are objects recognised? Describe and discuss the evidence for ecological and constructivist approaches of visual object processing, and critically evaluate the evidence and arguments for a dual route model (or models) of perception.
multiple choice and quizzes
questions you should mostly be able to answer
- gestaltists say visual patterns organise in f__ & g__ and that the mind is always act__ per__ (p1 & 7)
- behaviourism saw the mind as what? vs cognitivism considering what? p2
- define sensation and perception (p3)
- describe the sight processes p3
- describe the visual pathways in the brain – where do they end up? p4
- what type of cues do we use to see in 3d?
- name and describe at least one specific type of each p5,6
- what is pragnanz? p7
- name the 4 key gestalt principles
- do gestalt theorists say perception is learned or innate?
- is gestalt a top down or bottom up approach and what was their key research method? p8
- what is isomorphism?
- name 3 advantages & disadvantages of the gestalt approach
- why does Gregory’s ponzo (railroad) illusion work? p9
- The mueller-lyer illusion works because maybe why? p10
- what is the key idea in constructivist theories of perception (Gregory, Helmholtz & Bruner) and how is it different from gestalt? p10
- is constructivist theory of perception top-down or bottom up?
- What are the key ideas of Gibson’s direct perception/ecological approach? p11
- Is it a top down or bottom up approach?
- What are the flaws of Gibson’s direct perception approach? p13
- Vision might be used for what 2 crucial functions?
- What brain systems underlie these functions i.e. which pathways?
- How did Milner & Goodale modify this?
- How did brain damaged patients provide evidence for this (optic…& visual…)?
- roughly, how does object recognition work? p14
- describe view-based theory of perception and 2 of its key concepts (Tarr)
- name some advantages & disadvantages of view-based theories p15
- Describe Marr’s theory of object recognition p15&16
- What are the 5 invariant properties of edges according to Biederman’s recognition by components theory? p16
- Outline Biederman’s recognition by components theory p17
- What evidence supports the theory?
- Is it top down or bottom up?
- Name 3 advantages and limitations of recognition by components theory p.18
- What does Thompson’s Thatcher illusion tell us?
- Can you name any components of Bruce and Young’s facial recognition model? p22
- What support is there for the model?
- What 3 findings lead us to think that faces are special? p23
- Outline Farah’s 2 process model of object & face recognition
- What 2 impairments indicate that face recognition is special? Define them and how they make a double dissociation p24
- What brain area is most connected with face recognition?
- What’s a key argument against the faces special view, related to people with PA? p25
- What’s Yin’s explanation of face inversion effect (2 types of processing)?
many answers to these questions can be found here