Working Memory Exam Revision

sorts of things you should probably know 

  • Understand the processes that underlie working memory
  • Distinguish different memory systems, with evidence from examples
  • Critically evaluate the contribution of the working memory model to an understanding of memory

 

example exam questions

1. Describe briefly the key features of the Working Memory model emphasising how it was an advance on previous models of STM. Evaluate the experimental evidence for any two of the components.

2. What led to the development of the Working Memory model? How has evidence been used to support the existence of at least two of its components?  

3. What led to the development of Baddeley & Hitch’s Working Memory model? How has evidence been used to support the existence of at least two of its components? (Approximately one third of your answer should relate to the first part of the question and the remainder to the second half.)

4. How has the concept of ‘Working Memory’ contributed to an understanding of memory? Critically evaluate, using ideas and evidence relevant to psychological science.

 

multiple choice and quizzes

http://global.oup.com/uk/orc/psychology/braisby2e/01student/questions/ch09

http://www.psypress.co.uk/ek5/resources/flash/mcq/mcqtests.swf

http://www.psypress.co.uk/ek5/resources/flash/ftb/fillintheblanks.swf

 

fed up with revising? take a break (sort of)

Video: Baddelely and the development of the WM model

 

questions you should mostly be able to answer

  1. Working memory is about what processes? p2 
  2. Why the ‘working’ in ‘working memory’? p3 
  3. Describe key points of Atkinson & Shiffrin’s modal model/multi store model of STM p4 
  4. What does primacy & recency effect tell us about memory? p4&5
  5. …and what about the role of rehearsal? p5
  6. How does neuropsychology give evidence for 2 separate stores?
  7. What are the general developments in models of STM p6 
  8. What does Shallice & Warrington’s (1970) KF tell us about memory? p6 
  9. What did Shallice & Warrington’s case studies show? p7 
  10. Briefly describe the 3 components of working memory
  11. Briefly describe the phonological loop (PL) and 4 key pieces of evidence for its existence p7&8 
  12. Is sum, what does the evidence prove? p8 
  13. Why does digit span increase with age in children? p8
  14. What components is the AL/PL made up of? 
  15. Does articulatory suppression abolish phonemic similarity or word length effect? p8 
  16. Briefly describe the visuospatial sketchpad (VSSP) p9
  17. What type of tests have been used for evidence of vssp?
  18. How did patients PV and ELD provide evidence for separate vssp? p10
  19. How did Logie’s (1986) experiment give support for separate vssp?
  20. Briefly describe the central executive (cex) p11
  21. [Does movement interfere with spatial or visual interfere with the Visuospatial Sketchpad (VSSP) and why? p12]
  22. How does Baddeley’s (1974) dual task approach work, what was thinking behind it, what was the result and conclusion?
  23. Working memory span measures usually contain both a s___ and p___ element p13
  24. How did Daneman & Carpenter measure reading span, what resource does it use and why? p13 
  25. What did Oakhill link reading span to?
  26. How does random letter generation test the central executive? 
  27. What brain area (damage) is associated with central executive? p14 
  28. What issues might these patients show? p14 
  29. In the 1986 version of the model the cex (SAS) is similar to what? 
  30. What is contention scheduling and what does the SAS do? p14&15 
  31. What is the Wisconsin card sorting task and what problems do frontal lobe patients have doing it? p15
  32. What did Henry (2001) find regarding learning disability and cex? p16 
  33. How does Miyake (2000) split the cex into 3? p16 
  34. What does the episodic buffer do?

many of the answers to these questions can be found: here

 

essay plan

(a) I pulled out relevant studies from my notes, which were based on my reading

(b) Conceived a structure (chronological developments, paradigms, counter arguments)

(c) Created the shorthand summary below to memorise the essay

 

1. Describe briefly the key features of the Working Memory model emphasising how it was an advance on previous models of STM. Evaluate the experimental evidence for any two of the components.

 

previous model and problems:

Atk&Shifs (1971) Modal Model desc: unified STS – limited capacity, rehearsal, STS to LTM, STS crucial for cognition

Shallice & Warrington (1970) – KF – MM 3 problems:

2 digit span but LTM OK, broken STS but normal reasoning, different STM sound vs vision, [via LTM]

working memory paradigm:

Baddeley (BD) WM (1974) – replaced the unitary STS with: CEX, PL, VSSP

STM vs WM, sub component, overlap, WM flex retention/ reasoning

do component overview (only what’s required for the debate below)

PL: ltd capacity speech based store holding info for ~2s, storing 2/3 items, rehearsal

VSSP: specialised for visuospatial coding

Evidence for the stores:

Basso et al (1982) – PV – 2 span but OK on corsi blocks

Hanley et al (1991) – ELD – opposite so dissociation

evidence PL:

BD(2000) phonetic similarity 25%;

BD(1975) word length & word length & dual

evidence VSSP:

Logie (1986) – dual task – combining 2 VisuoSpatial or verbal difficult, interference

Evaluation of PL & VSSP/ model:

Baddeley et al (1975) – faster readers better recall, cross cult & dev the same

Daneman & Carpenter (1980) reading span link comprehension – same process

Paulesu et al (1993) – PET during tasks using diff components of loop; brocas svr, lspmg gy PL

BUT Gathercole & Hitch (1993) – output delays can cause word length effects: rehearsal as a reason isn’t required

BUT Gathercole et al (1994) – STM word-length effect in kids before developing ability to use sub-vocal rehearsal

BUT Jones (1995) – Binding problem, integ & coordination same objects bet systems not addressed

BUT Jones (1995) – speech & non-speech interference verbal & visual tasks – unitary memory sys? But dissociations suggest not